Friday, 18 October 2019

Reporting the Climate Crisis

For all the negative commentary on our work, many Caribbean journalists have been looking at the question of climate change long before it became fashionable to wave banners on the street, to have colourful demonstrations proclaiming its advent, and before the issue earned serious mention in our parliaments.

Predating the efforts of the Association of Caribbean MediaWorkers (ACM) which was established in 2001, was the work of the Caribbean Environmental Reporters Network (CERN) which, since 1993, had been focusing on broad environmental management issues and attempting to zero-in on some of the regional challenges the onset of changed climate conditions was capable of creating.

Then, in 2004, the ACM was invited to participate in the work of Caricom’s Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change (MACC) Project to help produce a Climate Change Handbook for Caribbean Journalists. It was published in 2005.

My enthusiasm for the exercise, as a member of the editorial team, flowed seamlessly from the journalistic work I had been a part of, via CERN, to critically examine the potential sectoral impacts of climate change. We looked at agriculture, tourism, public infrastructure and insurance, among other areas of concern.

By the way, the T&T industry official I called for comment on the insurance angle was unclear what the hell I was talking about – even as Lloyds of London had already established a special programme to examine the future of risk assessment and implications for reinsurance rates. This is not to embarrass anybody or any institution, but to state a dry fact.

Last week, in Guyana, an ACM team assembled for part two in a series of journalistic consultations for production of a publication that considerably advances the narrative of the 2005 text and acknowledges a role in promoting better understanding of what I have proposed we describe as the current “climate crisis.” The first consultation was hosted in Antigua.

Our early work had attracted the attention of our colleagues in the South Pacific via the Pacific Islands News Association (PINA) with which the ACM had signed a memorandum to collaborate on an issue we recognised as being of grave, common concern.

Today, Pacific journalists are present at the Conference of the Parties (COP) sessions of the United Nations Climate Change Conference and are among some of the issue’s most competent reporters.

There has been broad recognition of the fact that while the media industry stands, like every other commercial sector, to be affected by our changing circumstances, media practitioners have a very special role to play when it comes to truth-telling about climate change.

This means that greater attention needs to be paid not only to the sloganeering of politicians and the actions of “activists” but to an understanding of the climate science that has, so far, and largely got the story right.

Proceeding along this path has run very much against a Caribbean culture that relies heavily on intuition, a notion of selectively divine beneficence, and the view that, however weighted by fact and data, there are multiple sides to some stories that require equal hearing.

There is a raging debate in some circles on this point because, after all, shouldn’t all ideas contend? Well, there was a time when the flatness of the planet was being seriously debated (I have no time for modern-day flat-earth loonies) and there are conspiracy theories about things like the lunar landing and the causes of some diseases, that are just as easily dismissible.

This, of course, is a newspaper column and not a chapter in a science journal. So you need to go look up the available science on climate change, or read what is happening to those countries near and far that are experiencing the impacts of more frequent and more intense weather episodes, rising sea levels and threats to freshwater supplies.

I had asked in my introduction to the 2005 volume: “Why do journalists need this handbook?” and I answered myself by concluding that climate change had become “one of the most compelling stories of the 21st Century.”

In this season of the budget debate and upcoming local government elections, this is not an irrelevant assertion. I am following the budget debate and the election campaign to hear what our leaders have to say about this. I believe you should follow suit

First Published in the Trinidad and Tobago Guardian on October 16, 2019

Thursday, 12 September 2019

Disasters and the Journalism Challenge

Daily, the unfolding catastrophe in The Bahamas is providing instruction for communicators on some of the most important features of managing the persistent nightmare of our geography and state of relative under-development in the Caribbean.

It is much too early to focus on a finite “toll” or anything of the sort – whether it be lives or property or economic or humanitarian opportunity. But it is always a good time to re-visit some of the things we have learnt through experience and observation over the years. This is especially pertinent as we in T&T remain firmly implanted in the middle of a hurricane season and can all remember last year’s flooding and 6.9 earthquake.

One of the first things diligent professional communicators learn about disaster management is the importance of verified information. Though disaster officials are often aware of the likelihood of greater numbers and more dramatic statistics, it is important for them to ensure a high level of orderliness and precision based on what is known and not the latest round of speculation.

On Monday, one Bahamian publication, relying on information gleaned from “a (single) hurricane rescue worker” who cited unnamed “officials”, claimed that more than 2,300 people had been killed by last week’s hurricane. This may or may not have prompted the country’s police force to later announce that, as at Sunday, 45 bodies had been discovered in the Hurricane Dorian affected areas of Abaco and Grand Bahama.

The news story came from a publication that had earlier reported that people described as “Haitian mobs” had been responsible for widespread looting, home invasions and robberies in Great Abaco.
Don’t get me wrong. The figures can and will change, and there is certain to be a “Haitian” issue, but for the moment it is highly irresponsible to present the unverified as fact.

At a workshop organised by the Association of Caribbean MediaWorkers (ACM) last year, following the 2017 hurricanes, we discussed some of these phenomena. (By the way, we have factored in a climate crisis perspective on all this.)

It was remarkable, I noted, how the purveyors of “disaster porn” are attracted to the unverified; how they are also strong devotees of conspiracy theories, capable of spotting the most remote flavour of partisan favouritism, and are far more prone to entertaining irresponsible, inflammatory language to describe people and things happening around them. We have them here for sure.

The “mainstream” media are typically and haplessly victimised by this, perennially being accused of conspiring with officialdom to withhold important information – before, during and after bad things happen.

Yet, when push comes to shove, people expect radio and television stations to be on the air, newspapers to be published and journalists to be presenting unvarnished fact.

This leads to another thing we discussed in Barbados last year: How quickly the online trolls and mischief-makers disappear and re-appear at times of crisis. On the eve of Hurricane Maria in Dominica, for example, the island was in the throes of sharp political conflict.

The online warriors were hard at work. Category 5 defamation, false accusations and damaging propaganda were in abundance. Then Maria landed. While media workers reported for duty, the online combatants remained under their beds. All that remained was journalism … until the water settled, and the usual suspects were back at it again when it was safe.

In examining this, the focus for some of us has been and continues to be on the plight of working journalists operating in the so-called “mainstream media” at times of disaster. This is so because while social media buffs can be helpful, there is a validating role played by established media that has been determined to be indispensable.

Additionally, media workers in the Caribbean have displayed a sense of professional duty that is almost completely absent on the part of many others at times like these.

This is particularly so when it comes to the independent verification of information (and, yes, mistakes are made), the maintenance of plant and equipment to assure operational continuity, and a level of selflessness many media professionals consider to be a part of their job specifications.

All of this to say that at a time when journalism is under constant attack, there is a necessity for precisely what it sets out to achieve – the validation of potentially life-changing information, a strong professional commitment to present accurate news and information, and a rare level of courage.

Saturday, 20 July 2019

The flickering light of free expression

Using the opportunity here to raise multiple issues, instead of the usual one – not that they are unrelated.

Every now and then you see a social media post (none of which will be repeated here) and you wonder whether the marketplace of public opinion is indeed having the impact of leveling off extremes – of separating wheat from chaff, sheep from goats, lambi from freshwater conch.

The idea behind freedom of expression is that out of the unmediated exchange of news, information, creativity and opinion, there emerges an eventual equilibrium that takes people closer to rational conclusions, facts, and enlightenment.

This is the exact opposite of what propaganda seeks to achieve – especially when it seeks to stifle dissent by creating conditions for an imbalance in information flows. This is also the dynamic that disinformation sets out to undermine and destroy.

Our authoritarian instincts clearly also do not sit comfortably with rights and freedoms. Freedom of expression is thus not readily recognisable, in such a context, as a multi-pronged process involving not only the dissemination of expression, but an ability to seek out and to access expression.

Recent discussions on the nature of our Freedom of Information Act exposed a lack of understanding of such a scenario. Access to information is, in fact, a freedom of expression issue insofar as such a right identifies an ability to also research and to acquire information – official information in particular.

The Media Association’s (MATT’s) nuanced response to the challenge was thus spot-on, and the ensuing official responses indicative of an instinct toward the authoritarian.

All of this long-windedness to come to another, as I said not unrelated, point: The perpetual exclamation that “Caricom is ah waste of time” and has achieved nothing in its 46 years.

I have spoken with multiple regional decision-makers in the Caribbean who have, in not so many words, expressed such an uninformed view – despite the existence of over 20 institutions, and numerous areas of functional cooperation that keep some of them in office.

Two developments reminded me of this recently. The first relates to online responses to the news that internecine conflict arose during a caucus of Caricom heads of government in Saint Lucia last week when the subject of the Caribbean Development Fund (CDF) came up.

The other has to do with the fact that the people at the Carifesta Secretariat in T&T had lumped Caricom journalists with “foreign” journalists in tailoring the event’s media accreditation process.
First, the CDF issue. It is disturbing that people who know more than I do are not chiming in on the question of imbalances (“disparities” is the word used in the official literature) in the Caricom Single Market and Economy (CSME) process, and what the CDF was designed to achieve.

There is need for a mature discussion on this – for all 15 member states to take a “deep breath” on this issue, as Dr Rowley put it, because Jamaican intransigence (even as the Golding Report proposes a strategic opting out of it all) can provide an opportunity to revisit the old MDC/LDC formula.

More on that another time. Now on to Carifesta XV. It has taken the patience required of my very first point – acknowledging a marketplace that mixes sense with nonsense – and an understanding of point two, regarding the ignorance that prevails on things Caricom, to have not lost my cool when I realised that the Carifesta folks in Port-of-Spain had not instinctively recognised the event as a quintessential Caricom activity.

Further, that the region’s single market process, to which we are bound both by domestic legislation (the Caricom Act and others) and international law (the Treaty of Chaguaramas) accords (qualified) equal treatment to all nationals of countries signed on to the revised treaty.

This forms the basis of the advocacy some of us have engaged in over some rather hard years to promote recognition of categories such as media professionals and entertainers (“artistes”) as worthy of such status. But there is also an accompanying moral obligation.

Thanks to Keith Subero, in particular, for helping to have the initial Carifesta error corrected – if it was considered to be an error based on ignorance in the first place.

This country’s gradual passivity on Caricom affairs over the years has indeed been taking its toll. So much so that the marketplace of free expression on things Caricom is served by rather dim lighting at the moment, both here and in our immediate neighbourhood.

Originally published in the T&T Guardian - July 10, 2019

Monday, 29 April 2019

'Passages' for Guyana Launch

Trinidadian journalist/poet, Wesley Gibbings, will launch his new collection of poems, 'Passages' in Guyana on Friday May 3, 2019.

The event will be hosted at Moray House in Georgetown from 6.00 p.m. to 7.30 p.m.

This is Gibbings' fifth collection poems. His first collection was published while he was a secondary school student.

He is also an award-winning journalist and press freedom advocate whose work on media development has been widely published.

Signed copies of 'Passages' will be on sale at the launch at an introductory price of $3,000.

Monday, 18 March 2019

An Approach to Freedom

An Approach to Freedom: An interview with Wesley Gibbings                                      1

An Approach to Freedom: An Interview with Wesley Gibbings on Journalism and Activism in the Caribbean



Wesley Gibbings is a Trinidad and Tobago-based journalist whose career in the media landscape spans over three decades. He was a former president of the Media Association of Trinidad and Tobago (MATT) and currently holds the position of President of the Association of Caribbean Media Workers (ACM). In 2017 he was awarded the Percy Qoboza International Journalist Award by the National Association of Black Journalists in the USA. Throughout Gibbings’ career he has written on governance, the arts and environmental issues. He also witnessed the technological and industry transitions in media that have transformed the journalism profession. This interview highlights his experiences as a journalist in the Caribbean region in relation to society and social change.

The notion of objectivity’ is an essential aspect of journalism training, in which writers must interpret events and issues outside of their opinions and personal experiences. This expectation shapes the code of ethics within the profession. However, many journalists get personally involved [in reporting]. In politics they can become partisan, in a social context they can become advocates for a special cause, in a conflict situation they can takes sides, becoming attached” (Ruigrok 2010, 86). Thus, activist writing and political activism is not uncommon in journalism. Gibbings practice of a journalism of accountability” (Ruigrok 2010) involves holding the state accountable, teaching, professional development of media workers and advocacy at national, regional and international levels. With the rise of digital media and alternatives to mainstream media organisations, media literacy among audiences has become an even more significant issue today. This should not be only viewed as a problem of contemporary society but as an expansion of choice for audiences. Gillmor writes that the kind of neutral journalism that people talk about has never fully existed at all. It is a unicorn. And now that audiences have choices, I hope we can let the unicorn fade away (quoted in Leidel 2014). This interview explores Gibbings’ experiences of activism by journalists, the freedom of the press, the freedom of speech and social issues.

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In Trinidad and Tobago, recent legislation the Cybercrime Bill, the Whistleblower Protection Act, the Data Protection Act and the Broadcast Code have initiated wider public debate about the constraints to press and media freedom. For this reason, I wanted to ask Gibbings:

1.   How do national politics and political participation influence the practice of journalism?

2.   What is the significance of freedom of the press and the freedom of speech in the context of the Caribbean?

3.   What are the current challenges and future opportunities for Caribbean journalism in todays
media landscape?

This interview reflects broader perspectives in Caribbean Communications Studies and Journalism. Gibbings was often very emotional as he discussed ‘freedom in the Caribbean and the persistent threat of hurricanes because of climate change. His passion in the field serves as a guide to upcoming journalists and scholars in Communication Studies who are interested in examining the role of the media in Caribbean development.

I  interviewed Wesley  Gibbings  in Maracas,  St. Joseph,  Trinidad and Tobago on the  23rd   of December 2017. The interview was transcribed with bracketed notes to clarify casual references or abbreviations. In addition, I edited the interview for clarity where necessary but I have generally preserved his articulation and colloquialism.

Political Formations and the Practice of Journalism

AS:     In 1981, you were an electoral candidate for the Lloyd Best-led TAPIA1. TAPIAs political communications were central to their political project. I’d like for you discuss your participation in the political fray as a journalist.

WG: I was not full time in the media then, I was freelancing in 1980 [writing for] the Challenge newspaper. At the time I was involved with my familys insurance business. My father was one of the founding members of TAPIA. Lloyd’s son and I went to QRC [Queen’s Royal College] together. Lloyd picked us up at QRC all the time, and then we later went to the river on some afternoons. We had a good personal relationship. We sold TAPIA out on the street. All the young boys in the area, Lloyd Best would pass in his white Holden and give out papers and we would get fifty cents or something a copy for selling it.

My political awareness was awoken in the QRC experience.

1          The TAPIA House Movement was a political party led by the public intellectual Lloyd Best in Trinidad and Tobago. The party contested the 1976 and 1981 general elections.

An Approach to Freedom: An interview with Wesley Gibbings                                      3

AS:     It is. It is an elite secondary school that trained boys for a particular kind of performance of masculinity, part of which deals with public leadership and political consciousness.

WG: Yes and the education was secular. That was a powerful thing. A lot of the teachers were QRC old boys. My father went QRC too. I started QRC in 1970. I was very aware of Black Power. When I went to QRC there was a lot of focus on that. The guys who went in that time were very politically aware. As a youth, you focus on cricket and football but there was NUFF and TAPIA was formed around that time too. TAPIA went into the election in 1976. TAPIA actually thought that they would win that election but I went in Couva and saw that the ULF [United Labour Front] was fighting elections and DLP [Democratic Labour Party] was on the way out. I got to meet the late Simbhoonath [Capildeo]. [On] the night of the election we went to TAPIA house to listen to the result. They lost. But I knew down in Central, TAPIA was in no one’s consciousness.

I kept in contact with TAPIA and Lloyd Best encouraged me to publish my first set of poems in
1977. One day Lloyd Best asked if I wanted to be a candidate in the election. I was recently married in July of 1981. What was instructive during that period is that I got to know [Basdeo] Panday. I got to know [A.N.R.] Robinson. I also knew that Lloyd Best had no respect for them, he thought they were hustlers and smart men.

I only went in to full-time journalism in 1985. I edited the Trinidad and Tobago Review for a time. By this time, I thought I knew what politics was about and totally dislodged myself from it. I could not be involved. But after the election in 1986 I did a column titled The Debate Column in the Express. In one of my columns I described Robinson’s victory as abourgeois revolution. It was seen as very offensive.

I did not say that in 1983 I was enrolled to do course at the Free University of Amsterdam, but they did not have enough people subscribed to do the course. I ended up on my own. That is where I considered my conversion. I learnt about socialism from that standpoint. Best was against that word and I understood the point of shaping our own philosophy and so on. But I was a bit offended by his dismissal. This early experience informed my view about what was shaping with the government. One of the big issues was the dismantling of PTSC in order to invite more private operators. The political activism that I had [pursued] in my earlier years rolled over later into press freedom.

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Gibbings at a public rally for TAPIA, 1981.

Fighting for Freedom: The Press, Speech and Caribbean People

AS:     You are widely known as a journalist with a career spanning longer than three decades in the Caribbean. In more recent years you have developed an international profile as a campaigner for the freedom of the press and freedom of speech. What is the significance of these campaigns in the context of the Caribbean?

WG: I have different takes on this question but let me give you the background in terms of my involvement. My work really started in this area in 1986 when the Media Association of Trinidad and Tobago [MATT] was formed. I was on its very first Executive Committee. It did not start off as a press freedom body; it was more of a professional development association. It described itself as a professional association of journalists.

The more you look at the issue of media performance and media development, the more you tend to pay attention to the environment in which people operate. I saw to a growing extent how freedom of expression and freedom of the press were becoming more pertinent to media development and overall development.

I remember when the NAR [National Alliance for Reconstruction]2 came into power in 1986 they did a constitution review and I voluntarily testified before the constitution commission because

2         The National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR) was a political party that unified the opposition
against the ruling Peoples National Movement (PNM) and governed Trinidad and Tobago between
1986 and 1991.

An Approach to Freedom: An interview with Wesley Gibbings                                      5

the question arose: Should freedom of the press remain as a discrete right under the constitution of Trinidad and Tobago?” The commissioners were asking me questions, Why should that be there? They wanted to know what was the big deal if it’s not there. Serious people in the society don’t get that freedom of the press is a very distinct and discrete right. Like freedom of expression, which is multidimensional, freedom of the press is not a waste of time or something just geared towards the protection of the media industry. They don’t understand a basic principle of freedom of expression is not only the right of somebody to express themselves but also the right of people to seek out other people’s expression and receive it. Freedom of the press is not the freedom of the media industry, it is freedom of the audiences who might be seeking out expression.

In 2001, I led the formation of the Association of Caribbean Media Workers [ACM]3  and one of the things I thought we should do is extend our arms internationally for people who have more experience and expertise in this area. We joined the International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX)4  which was very important for the ACM because it helped us broaden our perspective of the freedom of the press and the freedom of expression.

Gibbings’ chairs an IFEX panel, Cambodia, 2013.

3          The Association of Caribbean Media Workers (ACM) is a professional network of journalists and media workers. The organisation was established in 2001. See:
4         The International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX) is a global network of NGOs involved with advocating the freedom of expression and human rights. See:

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AS:    While an infrequent publication, the ACM produces a “State of Caribbean Media Report”.
How do the freedom of the press and the freedom of speech feature in your reporting on the region?

WG: It is very difficult to assess region with classical notions or concepts. For example, we dont see freedom of the press in the same way as Reporters Without Borders (Reporters sans frontières) or the Committee to Protect Journalists [CPJ] do. Their metrics are standard and understandably limited because they are global in scope. They ask questions such as, How many journalists have been kidnapped? Who has been killed? and they keep close count on that. They examine online bullying. In the Caribbean we need a more nuanced way in examining the freedom of the press. Over the years we have tried to capture that in terms of our reporting. Unfortunately, since 2003 we have not been able to pull together a cohesive freedom of the press report for the Caribbean. In March 2018, we will have a meeting to refine the questions we plan to ask. We have the silencing of journalists and self-censorship. We need to be able to ask nuanced questions in order to capture that. If you ask, Are the media in the Caribbean free? Under classical definitions, we are very free and that is reflected in Reporters Without Borders and their annual reports. If you were to ask me as a Caribbean person with an understanding of how the media works in the Caribbean, Are we free? I would say No”.

AS:     What you suggest is that the threat of physical violence is not as prevalent but there is an environment of risk for media workers. Is this the case?

WG: Yes. The way I usually put it is that journalists are not killed in the Caribbean but many stories die. The objective behind killing a journalist is to generate silence. But there are other ways to generate silence by not making them lose their lives to making them lose their livelihoods. In the Caribbean you can move quickly from being a highly respected and well-placed journalist to selling insurance overnight. The industry is very thin on resources and opportunities are scarce. The job is not very high paying. We need a nuanced approach and develop a ‘freedom approach’. Given our past and the lack of freedom as a people - slavery, indentureship and other circumstances - we are in a place where freedom means something special.

[Gibbings breaks into tears]

Why is it that the default way we frame legislation is not one of freedom? If there is something new, such as social media, the first instinct we have is to see how we can clamp and control it. People with our background, our orientation should be, if something emerges, ask, How do we set it free? How do we liberate it? The starting point for addressing our problems should be liberation and not capturing, controlling, and putting things in a cage. Every single government in the Caribbean, for example, wants to look for a way to get their hands on the internet. They want to  regulate Internet content. The Telecoms authority here, early in the day, discussing the

An Approach to Freedom: An interview with Wesley Gibbings                                      7

broadcast code was looking at ways to control the Internet as part of the broadcasting legislation.
I said at the time, I wish them the very worst luck with that.”

Those with power will target the powerless who are threatening their positions of power. Out of the millions of Tweets, Facebook posts and information on Instagram, they focus on individuals. Why you? Invariably, those with power target the powerless in an attempt to silence the public because some words are seen as offensive. This is not freedom and being offensive is also part of the democratic process.

I have gone before the Equality Opportunity Commission to raise the issue of the inclusion of LGBTQ citizens. The Equal Opportunity Act very explicitly excludes discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. How could you have an Act which addresses the exclusion of people and it does not recognise sexual orientation? That is crazy. This is very much into the freedom of expression fold. This is what we are dealing with. We operate in societies where prohibition is the preferred route.

Media and Society

AS:     You recently published a column on the history of media in Trinidad and Tobago5. In the article you highlighted the wider social actors and forces that were involved in the development of the press, from the elites who established print for industry purposes to Leftist writers who used little magazines to advance their ideas. Discuss the impact of the media and the social organisation of society.

WG: The pace of technological innovation in the colonies during slavery slowed changes to the plantation system. Innovations in printing in Europe took a little while before they caught on in the Caribbean. Less information helped maintain the slave society and the social organisation of the time. New technology would have disrupted that order significantly. Technology and innovation are invariably linked to the social order, especially the elites in society.

Even today, there is robot journalism, news services that harvest news without the human touch. Today journalism it seems is more data driven instead of information driven. Today technology has changed minds from being linear. My practice as a journalist has changed. In journalism, we were interested in timeliness, in the digital age the emphasis is on timelessness.

In this current era, the conventional and mainstream media have lost their monopoly. I dont
subscribe to this thing about citizen journalism. I consider journalism to be a profession. In terms

5         See: Gibbings, Welsey. A Brief History T&T and the Caribbean”. Blog, published September 12,

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of mainstream media, however flawed and defective it may be, it is not dysfunctional, there is a sense of transparency. In the mainstream media you know who wrote the article, the editors, the owners,  if the organisation is  publicly traded. The global  focus  now therefore  is on media information literacy, which turns its spotlight on audiences and not just the generators of media content. Our societies must pay attention to creating better men and women instead of attempting to control and clamp down expression. People are discerning and if they know that the source is not transparent they will know that the writer cannot be held to account. Mainstream media has professional standards and ethics guiding it, generally. I know the value of mainstream media through its relationship with audiences when crises occur. Who do people really turn to? We had the recent experiences of hurricanes.

[Gibbings breaks into tears]

It’s hard to talk… that is the source of my current state, the hurricanes. In Dominica for example, at the height of the hurricane, violent winds and disappearing homes where were the bloggers and the online forums that are politically charged? There is a concerted attempt to diminish the credibility of mainstream journalists. If the mainstream media are so irrelevant, weak and not influential, why were they so central to bringing relief to people in Dominica during the crisis?

AS:     Globally the media industry has been on the back foot for sexist practices against women journalists and media professionals. Do you believe that the Caribbean media fraternity” has sought to address the needs of women within the profession?

WG: We support the Global Alliance on Media and this has become an explicit focus. I remember when Corinne Barnes did her doctoral thesis on women in the media. Marjan DeBruin also produced work in the area. At that time in Trinidad and Tobago, for the major newspapers, the senior reporters and editors were women. That is why data should not be applied simply. I do not know, however, if men in the occupation earn more. You cannot go on the numbers alone. Where specifically is gender inequality? Men dominate all the boards. In technical areas, men dominate. There is need for research on the quantitative and qualitative data. This is important because when there are attempts to undermine the media, women journalists are the first point of attack.6 Which man she had? Who she had child for? What is her relationship to a politician? There is
need for academic work to look at this.

6          On March 24, 2015, the ACM published a statement condemning the character attacks on women journalists involved in investigative and analytical work. See:

An Approach to Freedom: An interview with Wesley Gibbings                                      9

Journalism and the Media Landscape

AS:     While state owned media is not new, today we have the presence of state-run media houses with global distribution networks for their information and perspectives. Not only do Al Jazeera and RT News broadcast in American markets, TeleSUR English has mobilised many writers on the Left in the Global North and South. However, there is a great deal of talk about fake news” in today’s media landscape and a growing skepticism for media with explicit political agendas and interests. How have these media houses impacted the profession of journalism?

WG: Their agendas are very clear and it is political communications. A lot of it is journalistic in nature but it does not necessarily mean it is journalism. They make people aware of what is happening that perhaps would not otherwise be covered. RT News is journalistic but it politically motivated with Russia in mind. The same is the case for Al Jazeera and TeleSUR. There is a space in the landscape for this news. Fox News is right wing and sometimes totally disgusting in their broadcast but they have the right to be there.

AS:     This is a more institutional question. The early raison d’etre of The Caribbean School of Media and Communication (CARIMAC) at The UWI had in part to do with training a professional cohort of media workers in the region. Do you think it has lived up to this promise? And is the organisation relevant today?

WG: I don’t think CARIMAC has lived up to expectations of the media industry in the region and, even though it is not at the forefront of the minds of the media audience, it has not performed the function it ought to have. One [reason] is that the scatter shot focus of the early years needed to become far more channeled in a more systematic way. Only now you have a Degree in Journalism coming out of CARIMAC. We really did not have this focus on journalism. Now they are envisioning social media and the landscape. CARIMAC is lagging behind media development and in the process we have not produced the quality of personnel to lead the media in the Caribbean. I have respect for the work it does and there is a role for CARIMAC. It [also] needs to be more regional in character. Over the years it has becomeJamaicanised in terms of faculty and the student population.

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Wesley Gibbings and Michael Als at the launch of “No Half A Loaf, 1992.

Media and Activism

AS:     I want to understand more about climate change and the media. If you lectured in a class on “media and climate change, what is the core message you would to communicate to your students?

WG: In journalism you are not expected to take to the story an ideological or philosophical position. You are trained to try your best to approach a story with a clean slate. When it comes to climate change, we discuss it as a survival issue for the Caribbean. If we have seen climate change unfold as it has, the question is not How will the media thrive in the Caribbean? The question is, How will the Caribbean thrive? It is a survival issue and to me it is no question whether we support or against. It is a matter of survival and similar to communications in a time of crisis.

We need to take an informed perspective on it. One of the first things the ACM did was work with the Climate Change Centre and published a handbook for covering climate change in the Caribbean.7

7          See: Mainstreaming Adaption to Climate Change Project. 2005. Climate Change Handbook for Caribbean Journalists. . Accessed January 10, 2018.

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AS:       In 2017, you were awarded the Percy Qoboza International Journalist Award for foreign journalists by the National Association of Black Journalists (USA). Do you think that in the region we have produced the quality of writers involved with social justice as Qoboza had done in South Africa?

WG: The challenge of South Africa was a very peculiar kind of challenge that was political in nature. It called for a high level of fearlessness to present the truth or journalism that sought to illustrate the truth. [Qoboza] was tenacious and there is room for journalism to play that role in terms of survival issues.

To me, there is a Caribbean crisis in terms of international diplomacy and the recent vote on the Palestine issue showed this8. We need informed journalism that will explore what is the dynamic that took us to this point on an issue that is so important we did not come up with a cohesive approach. It is not about taking position it is about accepting the challenge to produce professionally composed information on issues you believe are central to  our survival as a situation. We play close attention to governance, but much less climate change. A journalist has to be against corruption and undemocratic practices, there is no ideological neutrality there. The CSME [CARICOM Single Market and Economy] is a special interest issue too. This is a natural reason for our integration as Caribbean nations, our survival.


Gibbings’ contribution to development of journalism in the Caribbean and activism beyond the professional realm  mark the  significance of the field in Caribbean development.  His career involves professional services in activist organisations, civil society organisations and the academy. Transition from one field to the next is not easy, however Gibbings multi-level advocacy and activism as well as his closeness to Caribbean culture allowed him mobility across geographies and professions throughout his career.

This interview also illustrates Gibbings disenchantment with political party politics and the state of contemporary Caribbean political leadership. Future studies should take into account the role and development of political communications including pamphlets and little magazines on the
Caribbean media landscape.

8          This refers to the CARICOM split votes at the United Nations General Assembly on a non-binding resolution that challenged the Trump-led US administration’s decision to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Five of the fourteen CARICOM members states who voted at the UN Resolution on the Status of abstained, including Trinidad and Tobago. Two members were not present for the vote.

12                                                                                  Amílcar Sanatan


ACM. 2005. Climate Change Handbook for Caribbean Journalists. Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change (MACC) Project. Accessed January 10, 2018.
---   2015. Statement on Social Media attacks against Women TT Journalists. Association of
Caribbean Media Workers (Online). Published March 24, 2015. Accessed January 10,
Gibbings, Wesley. 2017. A Brief Media History T&T and the Caribbean. Caribbean Journalism
(Blog), Published September 12, 2017. Accessed January 10, 2018. caribbean.html
Leidel, Steffen. 2014. Can journalists be activists? A conversation with Dan Gillmor. Blog,
onMedia, June 24, 2014. Accessed
January 11, 2018.
Ruigrok, Nel. 2010. From Journalism of Activism Towards Journalism of Accountability. The International Communication Gazette, 1748-0485; 72 (1): 85-90. . Accessed January 11, 2018.

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